Hebrew Definitions Glossary











Eusebius: The earliest Church historian (260-340 CE)














: Patrol. gr[ae]c., a collection of Greek texts written by the early church fathers, edited by a frenchman named Jacques-Paul Migne. This 469 volume edition of the Church Fathers is mega-expensive, so only large university libraries are likely to have it. It would be untranslated. The numbers after PG refer to volume number and column numbers. 

Jacques-Paul Migne : "In the 1840's, after entering the business by putting out trade journals for the clergy, this French priest began publishing volumes on theology, mainly by ancient and medieval writers. These collections in Greek and Latin, ranging across the first 1,200 years of Christianity, eventually yielded over a thousand volumes, about two million printed pages." (N Y Times Book Rev) Indexes. Migne was the founder of the Ateliers catholiques of Paris and owned a total of ten newspapers during the course of his life.














haf.jpg (2103 bytes)(Haftarah)
Haftarah (conclusion) is the prophetical section recited after the reading of the Torah on Sabbaths and festivals. Usually, though not always, the Haftarah contains some reference to an incident mentioned in the assigned (corresponding) Torah reading.  Rabbi David Abudarham, of fourteenth-century Spain, in his commentary on our liturgy, traces the custom of reading from the Prophets after the Torah reading back to the period of persecution preceding the Maccabean revolt. According to his theory, the Haftorah was introduced as a substitute for the Torah reading, prohibited under the severe decrees of Antiochus Epiphanes.  Other authorities suggest that the readings from the Prophets may have been instituted to emphasize the great value of these books to the Torah of Moses. (
Taken from Phillip Birnbaum's Encyclopedia of Jewish Concepts)


























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Israelis & Sepharadim pronounce this name Mosheh. The word has been anglicized into MOSES. Mshh may have originated as a Hebraized Egyptian-derived name (e.g., Tuthmoses = Tut Moses = "Moses"). According to our Torah, Mshh was born c. B.C.E. 1392 (as noted in Bamidbar Rabbah 14:18). This figure accords perfectly with Eliezer Schulman's count from creation using the Chumash and the Hebrew Calendar (refer to The Sequence of Events in the Old Testament).  Many archaeological experts now connect the laborers known as Apiru and Habiru (as referenced in Papyrus 348 and other Egyptian documents) to the Hebrews (see BAR/ Feb 1998). Other sources (e.g. Biblical Archaeological Review-April 1995 Issue) mention the Egyptian hieroglyphic "Merneptah" stela --which provides the first extra-Biblical reference to "Israel" as a people in Canaan in 1209 B.C.E. This date is entirely consistent with placing Moses and the Exodus in the 13th century B.C.E. In the same article, Kenneth A. Kitchen compares the accuracy of "Slave Prices" mentioned in the Hebrew Bible with those mentioned in ancient Egyptian documents. Their synchronicity is striking. The amount of additional (circumstantial) evidence used to place the Birth of Moses during this time period is huge.







(mash2.jpg (2511 bytes)) de-Judaized and eventually anglicized into "Messiah". According the RMb"M, the Messianic King will arise in the future and renew the Davidic dynasty, returning it to its initial sovereignty. He will build the Temple and gather the dispersed of Israel.













The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (EXTREMELY CONTROVERSIAL):

NHM, Two-volume set ISBN 0-9676202-4-4, Volume 1 ISBN 0-9676202-1-X, Volume 2 ISBN 0-9676202-2-8). Netzarim Hebrew Matityahu was acknowledged by the earliest Church historian (Eusebius, EH III.xxvii.4) as the only account recognized by the original Jewish followers of historical the Ribi Yehoshuah as the true and reliable record of his life and authentic teachings. All other accounts were dismissed by his original followers as false teachings. Netzarim Hebrew Matityahu is reconstructed via direct translations from ALL known earliest extant documents: Hebrew from the 1st century C.E. through the Even Bokhan inclusive and Greek from the 1st century C.E. through the 4th-century C.E.

These Hebrew source documents include Talmud Gemora (e.g. Shabbat 116b, 5th century CE), Nestor (e.g. lines 170 and 222, 9th century CE), Nitzakhon Yashan (e.g. #157, #221, #71, and #158; 13th century CE), Ms. Or. Rome #53 (12th century CE) and the Even Bokhan (composed in 1380 CE). The Greek sources include the papyri (e.g. P-64 c. 200 CE; P-86, et al.) and the Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus (4th century CE) along with the Latin a-3, and the Aramaic Peshitet (4th century CE, which was translated from the Greek sources). There is no other similar work which is faithful to historical 1st century Judaism of Jerusalem in rejecting post-135 C.E. Christian doctrines of Aelia C*a*p*i*t*o*l*i*n*a which were alien to 1st century Halakhah (Jewish Law) so that only followers of Jerusalem who are adherants of NHM are compatible with legitimate Halakhah and Judaism whether of the 1st century or today.









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Portion : The weekly reading of a particular section of the Torah (Five Books of Moses). The Torah is divided into fifty-four "portions," which are read at the synagogue every Sabbath in an annual cycle, beginning and ending shortly after the Jewish New Year. Excerpts from the Prophets and other biblical writings are read on the Sabbath and festivals. The readers of these texts use the cantillation marks set forth a millennium ago in melodic patterns that vary among different communities.This named section of the Torah is simultaneously read by observant Jews around the world.










(RMb"M) : Rabbi Moshe Ben Maimon--born in 1135 in Cordova, Spain (a Davidic descendent of Rabbi Judah the Prince, who compiled the Oral Jewish Law known as The Mishnah in the early part of second century of the common era). The RMb"M (himself) is known for his comprehensive compilation of Judaism’s Laws as codified in the Mishnah Torah.























(Shemoth )- (English: Exodus); the second Book of the "Chumash," or Five Books of Moses. It deals with the enslavement of the Jews by Pharaoh and the Egyptians, the birth and rise of "Moshe" (Moses), and the miraculous deliverance of the Jewish People by G-d through the agency of Moses.



















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Instruction, Teachings, or Doctrine, verbal noun of (hrh) . In Jewish literature, this word is sometimes used to refer to Jewish Scripture (i.e.: used synonymously with the word
mash --the Five Books of Moses)...However, Trh has ALWAYS consisted of two elements:

  1. (wpe7.gif (911 bytes) sh-Bikhthav) The basic covenantal agreement between G-d and the Jewish People, embodied in the Five Books of Moses, containing 613 Commandments, 248 "positive" and 365 "negative." The relationship of the "Written" to the "Oral" Law is that of "Basic Principles" to the "Analysis and Clarification of the Principles;" somewhat analogous to the relationship between the U.S. Constitution and Books and classes in constitutional Law. The basic idea giving authority to this Law is the principle of "Torah min HaShamayim," that the Torah (in the sense of both the "written" and the "oral" forms) was given by G-d to Man for his creative study and application to all realms of life.
  2. (balpeh.jpg (4295 bytes)) Principles of Jewish Law transmitted to Moshe (Moses) by G-d at Mt. Sinai, during the forty days and forty nights that Moshe was at the top of the mountain, to be transmitted orally from parents to children or from teachers to students. Although given to Moshe at Mt. Sinai, elements of the Oral Law actually preceded the events at Mount Sinai. Contains explanations of the Written Law, where it is necessary, e.g. physical definition of Tefilin, and explanation of Jewish concept of an "eye for an eye," which would otherwise be completely misunderstood. Originally, the "Oral Law" was not meant to be written down, but when the difficulties of Jewish History threatened to cause its forgetting, Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi (second century CE) compiled the Mishnah,  a word signifying "repetition" and "teaching", and Ravina and Rav Ashi compiled the Gemara.  It was subject to centuries of scholarly effort by sages who lived in Israel and Babylon until the beginning of the Middle Ages. 

      Sages whose teachings are mentioned in the Mishnah are known as Tanna'im. The Tannaitic period, during which the Mishnah was compiled, lasted from the destruction of the Second Temple to the early part of the third century CE. The Mishnah (which is primarily a book of Halakha - law), was written in Hebrew; and the commentary on the Mishnah, known as the Gemara (a summary of discussion, application, and elucidation of the Mishnah) was written in Aramaic-Hebrew.

Other material from this period, which was not included in the Mishnah, can be found in the Tosefta or in additional teachings, known as Baraitot, found in the two Talmudim (see below). The Mishnah as well as this supplementary material are written almost exclusively in Hebrew.

The Mishnah is also an important source with regard to matters of the Temple rite and lay customs of the time.

The Talmud
With the advent of the Mishnah, a class of rabbis known as Amora'im (third century CE through the sixth century) discussed this document, elaborated on it, and reconciled ostensible contradictions. The totality of their endeavor is the Gemara. The Gemara and the Mishnah together form the Talmud (pl. Talmudim) - a word that refers to the act of study.

Click Here to view a full sized page of the Talmud