Hebrew Definitions Glossary
Eusebius: The earliest Church historian (260-340 CE)
Eutychius : Patrol. gr[ae]c., a collection of Greek texts written by the early church fathers, edited by a frenchman named Jacques-Paul Migne. This 469 volume edition of the Church Fathers is mega-expensive, so only large university libraries are likely to have it. It would be untranslated. The numbers after PG refer to volume number and column numbers.
Jacques-Paul Migne : "In the 1840's, after entering the business by putting out trade journals for the clergy, this French priest began publishing volumes on theology, mainly by ancient and medieval writers. These collections in Greek and Latin, ranging across the first 1,200 years of Christianity, eventually yielded over a thousand volumes, about two million printed pages." (N Y Times Book Rev) Indexes. Migne was the founder of the Ateliers catholiques of Paris and owned a total of ten newspapers during the course of his life.
Haftarah (conclusion) is the prophetical section recited after the reading of the Torah on Sabbaths and festivals. Usually, though not always, the Haftarah contains some reference to an incident mentioned in the assigned (corresponding) Torah reading. Rabbi David Abudarham, of fourteenth-century Spain, in his commentary on our liturgy, traces the custom of reading from the Prophets after the Torah reading back to the period of persecution preceding the Maccabean revolt. According to his theory, the Haftorah was introduced as a substitute for the Torah reading, prohibited under the severe decrees of Antiochus Epiphanes. Other authorities suggest that the readings from the Prophets may have been instituted to emphasize the great value of these books to the Torah of Moses. (Taken from Phillip Birnbaum's Encyclopedia of Jewish Concepts)
The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (EXTREMELY CONTROVERSIAL):
These Hebrew source documents include Talmud Gemora (e.g. Shabbat 116b, 5th century CE), Nestor (e.g. lines 170 and 222, 9th century CE), Nitzakhon Yashan (e.g. #157, #221, #71, and #158; 13th century CE), Ms. Or. Rome #53 (12th century CE) and the Even Bokhan (composed in 1380 CE). The Greek sources include the papyri (e.g. P-64 c. 200 CE; P-86, et al.) and the Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus (4th century CE) along with the Latin a-3, and the Aramaic Peshitetâ (4th century CE, which was translated from the Greek sources). There is no other similar work which is faithful to historical 1st century Judaism of Jerusalem in rejecting post-135 C.E. Christian doctrines of Aelia C*a*p*i*t*o*l*i*n*a which were alien to 1st century Halakhah (Jewish Law) so that only followers of Jerusalem who are adherants of NHM are compatible with legitimate Halakhah and Judaism – whether of the 1st century or today.
(Shemoth )- (English:
Exodus); the second Book of the "Chumash," or Five Books of Moses. It deals with
the enslavement of the Jews by Pharaoh and the Egyptians, the birth and rise of
"Moshe" (Moses), and the miraculous deliverance of the Jewish People by G-d
through the agency of Moses.
Instruction, Teachings, or Doctrine, verbal noun of (hôrâh) . In Jewish literature, this word is sometimes used to refer to Jewish Scripture (i.e.: used synonymously with the word mash --the Five Books of Moses)...However, Tôrâh has ALWAYS consisted of two elements:
Sages whose teachings are mentioned in the Mishnah are known as Tanna'im. The Tannaitic period, during which the Mishnah was compiled, lasted from the destruction of the Second Temple to the early part of the third century CE. The Mishnah (which is primarily a book of Halakha - law), was written in Hebrew; and the commentary on the Mishnah, known as the Gemara (a summary of discussion, application, and elucidation of the Mishnah) was written in Aramaic-Hebrew.
Other material from this period, which was not included in the Mishnah, can be found in the Tosefta or in additional teachings, known as Baraitot, found in the two Talmudim (see below). The Mishnah as well as this supplementary material are written almost exclusively in Hebrew.
The Mishnah is also an important source with regard to matters of the Temple rite and lay customs of the time.
With the advent of the Mishnah, a class of rabbis known as Amora'im (third century CE through the sixth century) discussed this document, elaborated on it, and reconciled ostensible contradictions. The totality of their endeavor is the Gemara. The Gemara and the Mishnah together form the Talmud (pl. Talmudim) - a word that refers to the act of study.
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